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Ten Member States registered negative gender pay gaps in the water supply, sewerage, waste management and remediation activities (NACE Rev.2 section E) and eleven in the construction industry (NACE Rev. In 2016, the majority of the EU countries (for which data are available) recorded a higher gender pay gap (in absolute terms) in the private sector than in the public sector.In all EU Member States, except Spain, the gender pay gap in the financial and insurance activities (NACE Rev.

Industry and occupational sorting into ‘female’ and ‘male’ jobs accounts for the largest portion of the ‘explainable’ part of the gap.

In 2016, the job search engine Glassdoor did an analysis using half a million self-reported salaries and found that, for their data, occupational sorting accounted for about half of the pay gap. Here’s the pay gap for every occupation, arranged by how many women do each job, with highest share of Education doesn’t seem to be a dominant factor in whether a job is done primarily by men or women.

Across the EU Member States, the overall explained GPG varied from -12.7% in Romania to 14.5% in Germany.

A negative gap of 12.7% in Romania means that women were expected to earn 12.7% more than men due to the differences in average characteristics of men and women that were in favour of women in the labour market.

From reference year 2006 onwards, the unadjusted gender pay gap is based on the methodology of the Structure of earnings survey (SES) according to Regulation (EC) No 530/1999.

The SES is carried out with a four-yearly periodicity.

It is calculated for enterprises with 10 or more employees.

, in 2016, women's gross hourly earnings were on average 16.2 % below those of men in the European Union (EU-28) and 16.3% in the euro area (EA-19).

The unadjusted GPG can be decomposed into: , Eurostat carried out the decomposition of the unadjusted gender pay gap based on the 2014 data of the Structure of Earnings Survey. At the EU level, the overall explained GPG - calculated as the weighted average of the explained gaps in EU Member States - was 5.1% in 2014.

This means that women were expected to earn 5.1% less than men due to the differences in average characteristics of men and women that were in favour of men at EU level.

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