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Updating gps satellite data nike
In 1964, the United States Army orbited its first Sequential Collation of Range (SECOR) satellite used for geodetic surveying.
Obstacles such as mountains and buildings block the relatively weak GPS signals.
The GPS does not require the user to transmit any data, and it operates independently of any telephonic or internet reception, though these technologies can enhance the usefulness of the GPS positioning information.
The Naval Research Laboratory continued advancements with their Timation (Time Navigation) satellites, first launched in 1967, and with the third one in 1974 carrying the first atomic clock into orbit.
Another important predecessor to GPS came from a different branch of the United States military.
The Russian Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) was developed contemporaneously with GPS, but suffered from incomplete coverage of the globe until the mid-2000s.
China's Bei Dou Navigation Satellite System is due achieve global reach in 2020.integrating ideas from several predecessors, including a number of classified engineering design studies from the 1960s. It was initially developed for use by the United States military and became fully operational in 1995. When the Soviet Union launched the first artificial satellite (Sputnik 1) in 1957, two American physicists, William Guier and George Weiffenbach, at Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) decided to monitor its radio transmissions.Within hours they realized that, because of the Doppler effect, they could pinpoint where the satellite was along its orbit.The USAF, with two thirds of the nuclear triad, also had requirements for a more accurate and reliable navigation system.The Navy and Air Force were developing their own technologies in parallel to solve what was essentially the same problem.A follow-on study, Project 57, was worked in 1963 and it was "in this study that the GPS concept was born." That same year, the concept was pursued as Project 621B, which had "many of the attributes that you now see in GPS" and promised increased accuracy for Air Force bombers as well as ICBMs.Updates from the Navy TRANSIT system were too slow for the high speeds of Air Force operation.The Director of the APL gave them access to their UNIVAC to do the heavy calculations required.The next spring, Frank Mc Clure, the deputy director of the APL, asked Guier and Weiffenbach to investigate the inverse problem — pinpointing the user's location, given that of the satellite.To increase the survivability of ICBMs, there was a proposal to use mobile launch platforms (comparable to the Russian SS-24 and SS-25) and so the need to fix the launch position had similarity to the SLBM situation.In 1960, the Air Force proposed a radio-navigation system called MOSAIC (MObile System for Accurate ICBM Control) that was essentially a 3-D LORAN.